At the Earth's poles, wildlife survives both under the sea and on the icy surface above.
- During the winter, both the Arctic and Southern Oceans are covered in a thick layer of ice.
- The two frozen oceans support very different ecosystems, including polar bears in the Arctic and emperor penguins in the Antarctic.
- The animals that live in the Arctic and Antarctic regions have had to adapt in order to survive in such extreme conditions.
- The Arctic and Antarctic environments may seem inhospitable but there is an abundance of life above and below the frozen surface.
Winter in the Arctic and Antarctica mean temperatures as low as -70 degrees centigrade.
Saltwater freezes at -2 degrees centigrade, so during this time the Arctic Ocean is transformed, covered in a layer of ice 3m thick.
Winter ice covers 16 million km²
In Antarctica, winter ice advances across the Southern Ocean ...
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