All over the world insects and other animals tuck into plants, stripping them of their leaves and nutrients. Some plants have decided to bite back.
Carnivorous plants employ a range of adaptations to capture and digest insects, often to supplement poor nutrition in harsh environments.
The sundew's bright colors attract insects, but these sparkling droplets on the leaf hairs are not sweet nectar.
They are made of an extremely sticky substance, which trap inquisitive insects.
Before they can escape, the sundew's tentacles quickly capture the invader and digest it.
The Venus flytrap uses a spring-loaded trap.
Small hairs on the surface of its specially adapted leaves act as triggers.
As its prey tries to escape, the flytrap closes tighter and glands on the inner surface begin to produce digestive acids, which first kill and then dissolve its victim.
Lurking beneath many flowering aquatic plants is a stealthy underwater hunter, the bladderwort.
This species capture small organisms in bladder-like traps.
When prey brush against trigger hairs connected to the trapdoor, the bladder opens suddenly and water is swept inside.
The prey is also sucked inside and then slowly digested.
The pitcher plant's vertical leaves fill with water to trap its victims.
Insects are lured by nectar on the underside of the lid. Once on the leaf, its waxy surface ensures there is no escape, and most slip into the water and drown.
Glands at the bottom of the pitcher secrete enzymes, which help to digest the corpse.
Some pitcher species can hold over 2l of water and have been known to trap and kill small rodents.
Most plants are simply prey, the basis of food chains, but some are sophisticated, stealthy hunters.